The Andalusian Ibn Hazm and his famous book “Tawq al-Hamamah” (the ring-neck dove) had a great impact on poets in Spain and southern France after the Islamic community blended with the Christian community. The Arabic language was the language of the country and the language of the high-class people. In many Christian Spanish provinces, Christian and Muslim poets used to meet at the court of the governor. One such an example is what used to take place at the court of Sanko which comprised 13 Arab poets, 12 Christian poets, and a Jewish poet. A manuscript dating back to the era of Alfonso X , the king of Castile, was found and it contained a portrait that represented the meeting of two moving poets, one Arab and one European, singing together on lute. Even more, the European poets at the time were good at composing Arabic poetry. For this reason, Henry Maro says: “The Arab impact on the civilization of the Roman peoples did not stop at fine arts only, but extended to music and poetry as well."
Many of the selections were popular when they were written, but were later overlooked by scholarship as lowbrow, and thus left untranslated. “ The Drunkard, ” a Middle High German 13th-century narrative verse, has 416 lines about a most epic inebriate: “However large the vessel might have been / It was not big enough for his drink, / unless one continually refilled it.” Another Middle High German 13th-century narrative verse — “ The Gosling ” — is a rather bawdy tale of a young monk who sets out from the monastery into a world of which he is ignorant. When he first sees a woman, he asks his abbot what she is, and the abbot attempts to dissuade him by saying women are “geese”: “The monk said: ‘ My goodness! / Geese are lovely. / Why don’t we have geese? / They would fit in nicely / on the pasture at the monastery.'” Needless to say, the monk is soon seduced, and the abbot deeply embarrassed. Both of these texts demonstrate knowing humor, and a bit of playful depravity, not always associated with medieval manuscripts.