This presumes that there will be a triumph of a government system for regulating society. Yuval Noah Harari, in his 2011 book Sapiens, A Brief History of Humankind , shows that our behaviors are controlled by self-replicating cultural biases that may very well lead to the permanent destruction of humanity and, that industrialization is both one product of that bias and a clear indicator of its influence. The exceptions, explanations and incalculable time frame Fukuyama lays out to validate his theory ignore the reality of human motivational behavior as explained by Kahneman and Tversky in their 1981 essay "The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice." Kahneman and Tversky provide evidence and data that prove we do not behave in ways that the majority of academics define as "rational" and, therefore, predictable. That lack of rational predictability is even truer in any political undertaking. To say that democracy may expire, perhaps for centuries, but will rise again and become the universal norm provides a reason to look elsewhere for useful exploration of humankind's future.
In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes.