As the century progressed, the source of regulation shifted from weak charter provisions to pronouncements from state regulatory commissions.*40 These commissions — created first in Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut — were founded primarily to oversee the railroads’ rate-making process.*41 The most famous of these was the Massachusetts Board of Railroad Commissioners, founded by Charles Francis Adams in 1865.*42 The Commission was unlike modern regulatory agencies. Rather, it was akin to a “sunshine” commission: dedicated to information and education rather than direct action.*43
The third generation are represented by Margaret Beaufort, who as the mother of Henry VII, turned out to be the most significant member of the family, and by the four children of Edmund, the fourth Earl. Henry succeeded his father as one of the leaders of the Lancastrian party and commanded the victorious Lancastrian army at the battle of Wakefield, where the Duke of York was slain. He was attainted when the Yorkists came to power in 1461, but pardoned in 1463: two articles examine Edward IV’s policy of conciliation — ‘Edward IV and the Beaufort Family: conciliation in early Yorkist politics’ by . Jones (from The Ricardian, Vol. VI, No. 83, December 1983) and ‘Edward IV, the Duke of Somerset and Lancastrian Loyalism in the North’ by . Hicks (from Northern History, Vol. 20, 1984). However the policy was not successful and he was captured at the battle of Hexham and executed in 1464. His brother Edmund commanded a wing of the Lancastrian army at Barnet and Tewkesbury and was beheaded after the latter battle, in which John, the third brother, was also killed. Their sister, Joan, married the Earl of Wiltshire.